Dependency Injection in .Net Core

Dependency Injection in .Net Core

Delve into the concept of Dependency Injection in .NET Core. Learn what it is, why it matters, and how to implement it effectively.

In the world of modern software development, building scalable and maintainable applications is crucial. For developers working on real-time web API projects in .NET Core, Dependency Injection (DI) is a powerful tool that can make your code more flexible, testable, and organized. In this post, we will delve into the concept of Dependency Injection in .NET Core, explaining what it is, why it matters, and how to implement it effectively.

Understanding Dependency Injection

Dependency injection (DI) is a software design pattern and a fundamental concept of Inversion of Control (IoC) in .NET Core that allows us to decouple the dependencies of a class from its implementation. This makes our code more loosely coupled and easier to test .NET Core supports dependency injection through the IServiceProvider interface. This interface provides a way to register services with the DI container and then inject those services into classes that need them.

Mechanism of Dependency Injection

The mechanism of Dependency Injection in .NET Core follows a few key principles:

1. Inversion of Control (IoC):

IoC is a design principle that shifts the control over object creation and management from your code to a container. In the context of .NET Core, this container is usually provided by a framework, such as ASP.NET Core. IoC means that you don’t directly create instances of classes that your application depends on. Instead, you define the dependencies, and the IoC container resolves and provides them for you.

2. Service Registrations:

In .NET Core, services are registered with the IoC container during application startup. You specify which concrete class should be used when a particular interface or abstract class is requested. These registrations tell the container how to create instances of services when they are needed.

3. Service Resolution:

When a component needs a dependency, it doesn’t create it but instead requests it from the IoC container. The container resolves the requested service based on the registration and provides it to the requesting component. This process of resolving and injecting dependencies is what we refer to as Dependency Injection.

Why Dependency Injection Matters

Now that we understand the mechanism, let’s explore why Dependency Injection matters in real-time web API projects in .NET Core:

1. Decoupling:

Dependency Injection helps in achieving loose coupling between classes and modules in your application. When components rely on interfaces and abstractions rather than concrete implementations, you can easily swap out one implementation for another without affecting the entire system.

2. Testability:

DI facilitates unit testing by allowing you to replace real implementations with mock objects or test doubles. This way, you can isolate and test individual components without the need for a complete system or complex setup.

3. Maintainability:

With Dependency Injection, your codebase becomes more maintainable. It’s easier to identify and manage dependencies, which leads to cleaner and more organized code. Changes in one part of the application are less likely to have unintended consequences elsewhere.

4. Extensibility:

As your application evolves, you can introduce new services or replace existing ones without rewriting large portions of your code. This extensibility is invaluable in real-time web API projects, where requirements can change rapidly.

Implementing Dependency Injection in .NET Core

Let’s dive into the practical aspect of implementing Dependency Injection in a .NET Core project.

Step 1: Define Your Services

Start by defining the services or components your application needs. These could be database access, authentication, logging, or any other functionality that your application relies on. Each service should have an associated interface or abstract class that defines its contract.

public interface IDataService
// Define methods and properties here.

Step 2: Create Concrete Implementations

Next, create concrete implementations of your services. These classes will provide the actual functionality of the services.

public class SqlDataService : IDataService
// Implement the IDataService methods here.

Step 3: Register Services with the IoC Container

In your application’s startup code, configure the IoC container to associate interfaces or abstract classes with their concrete implementations. This is where the magic happens.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
// Register other services here.

Step 4: Inject Dependencies

Now that your services are registered, you can inject them into the classes that need them. This is typically done through constructor injection.

public class MyApiController : ControllerBase
private readonly IDataService _dataService;

public MyApiController(IDataService dataService)
_dataService = dataService;

// Use _dataService in your actions.

Step 5: Utilize the Services

You can now utilize the injected services in your controllers, services, or any other part of your application where dependencies are needed. The IoC container will take care of creating and managing the instances for you.

Service Lifetimes

.NET Core provides three main service lifetimes:

  • Transient: A new instance is created every time it’s requested.
  • Scoped: A single instance is created for the duration of a single HTTP request.
  • Singleton: A single instance is created for the lifetime of the application.

Understanding Scopes

Now, let’s dive deeper into the three service lifetimes mentioned earlier to understand when and how to use them effectively.

Transient :

Transient services are created every time they’re requested. This means that a new instance is generated for each injection. Transient services are suitable for lightweight, stateless components, like repositories, that don’t need to maintain any state between method calls. Be cautious when using transient services for components with heavy resource consumption, as they can lead to resource leaks.


Scoped services are created once per HTTP request. This is particularly useful for components that need to maintain state throughout the duration of a request. For instance, if you have a database context, using a scoped service ensures that the same instance is used throughout the request, improving performance and consistency.


Singleton services are created only once and shared across the entire application. This is ideal for components that should have a single instance throughout the application’s lifecycle. Examples include configuration settings or caching mechanisms. However, be cautious when using singletons with stateful components, as they can lead to unexpected behavior in multi-threaded scenarios.

In .NET Core, you can use the built-in dependency injection (DI) container provided by the framework or opt for a third-party DI container like Autofac. Both serve the same fundamental purpose of managing dependencies and promoting Inversion of Control (IoC), but they have some differences in terms of features and flexibility.

Autofac is a separate NuGet package that needs to be added to your project. It offers more advanced configuration options. It allows you to register services with complex lifetimes, delegate factories, and even customize the resolution process. You can also define custom lifetime scopes, which can be useful for scenarios where the built-in lifetimes are insufficient.

You can read more about the Autofac library here:


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